A Comparison of Ancient Egyptian and Mesopotamian Societies

Although Egypt and Mesopotamia have been both early agricultural societies constructed upon the water offered by the main rivers which sustained them, they exhibited important differences as a consequence of the different physical environments in which they developed. In this paper I will first focus on what I think about to be the main elements of these differences in surroundings after which discover the results of those variations of their non secular beliefs, political organization and business practices.

A major distinction in bodily surroundings between these ancient societies was the seasonal river flows on which they depended for farming.

The Nile which supported early Egyptian civilization was characterised by predictable and annual flooding in the early fall. These floods occurred after crops have been harvested. This pattern was a consequence of the common late summer season monsoon rains which fell at its headwaters. The Nile additionally possessed a big spreading delta space that gave rise to natural irrigation canals that may flood the areas between them with fertile nutrients for the subsequent planting yr.

The Tigris and Euphrates rivers which supported the Mesopotamian society would typically flood within the late spring simply when crops would be ripening, usually with disastrous outcomes on harvests. This pattern was a results of these waters originating from winter snow soften in the Anatolian mountains (now in current day Turkey) the place these rivers originated. These floods sometimes brought on the rivers to vary their course abruptly cutting off fields from water. Another major bodily distinction contributing to cultural differences was the relative isolation during which historic Egypt developed in comparison with Mesopotamia.

According to our text e-book ‘Egypt’s pure isolation and material self-sufficiency fostered a novel culture that for long intervals of time had comparatively little to do with other civilizations’. In distinction, Mesopotamia was open to migration or invasion and was dependent on imported resources. Also many different ethnic peoples contributed to the expansion of Mesopotamian society. The non secular beliefs of Egypt and Mesopotamia had been influenced by many components. The rivers, daily objects, and the beliefs of the people. In Egypt in contrast to Mesopotamia the Pharaoh was considered to be a god along with being the supreme ruler.

He was the main god of their religion. In Egypt folks praised their gods for the annual flooding of the Nile. However in Mesopotamia the people had been scared of their gods because ‘the gods may alter the landscape’ arbitrarily. In return they gave their gods presents in hopes of appeasing them. In each of the civilizations faith was polytheistic, i. e. , having many gods. The political group of Egypt was based on the central authority of the Pharaoh. Since he was the embodied form of a god, he was the regulation. He selected the place the capitol can be located, such a Thebes, Memphis, etc.

Although smaller cities existed in ancient Egypt nearly all of Egyptians appeared to reside in small farming villages. In contrast, Mesopotamia was constructed around a quantity of unbiased metropolis states surrounded by farming villages. Many of those cities competed with each other and even warred with each other to turn into a dominant center of power. No uniform foundation for legislation or justice existed on this decentralized setting until Hammurabi succeeded in becoming the primary king of Babylon and established the Babylonian Empire with control over all of Mesopotamia.

He created a law code of which may copies had been made. These inscribed tablets were sent to the different clans of Mesopotamia and became a basis for a uniform authorized system, together with classification of the individuals residing underneath his dominion The business actions in Mesopotamia have been fairly extensive as a outcome of the requirement to develop buying and selling relationships between the totally different city states and other areas to obtain wanted sources.

This resulted in the development of a merchant class within the city centers unlike the scenario in Egypt. Trade was based on bartering somewhat than money. Goods traded included wood, metals, and stone in change for wool, cloth, barley, and vegetable oil. These practices required the development of the skills wanted for acquiring, transporting, and protecting valuable commodities. According to our textbook, unbiased retailers and service provider guilds had gained considerable affect in Mesopotamian society by the second 2000 BC.

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