Currently, all states have applied a PDMP for health care prescribers and pharmacists to evaluation a patient’s control substance prescription history to help detect aberrant opioid use (Blum et al., 2016; Finley et al., 2017). The primary benefits of the PDMP consists of the flexibility to alert health care prescribers of managed medicine presently being issued by different prescribers and to promote appropriate prescribing practices by offering the patient’s opioid medication history, which is accessible to the prescribers and pharmacist (Aroke et al.
, 2018). Information supplied by the PDMP on the potential misuse or abuse of prescription opioids could enable suppliers to ensure secure prescribing practices while alleviating their patient’s ache (Bao et al., 2016). In essence, the PDMP could be seen as an informatics device that has the capacity to supply point-of-prescribing data to allow prescribers and pharmacist to make the most appropriate opioid prescribing and dishing out decision (Delcher et al., 2017).
Commonly famous barriers to use by well being care professionals include an advanced log-in course of, the period of time required to make the most of this system for looking and navigating purposes, frequent requirements for password updates, and general increase in workload within the use of the PDMP as a end result of required documentation mandated by each state (Poon et al.
, 2016; Radomski et al., 2017; Sun et al., 2018). Providers with legitimate scientific reasons to prescribe opioids for his or her sufferers could have issues that they might be recognized via the PDMP as high prescribers, which may be interpreted as inappropriately prescribing of opioids which will lead to attainable felony prosecution (Islam & McRae, 2014).
Although all states have an energetic PDMP, every state’s program varies and operates in a different way, such because the reporting time for stuffed prescriptions, interstate data sharing, how prescribers are identified within the PDMP database, and whether prescribers are mandated to make use of the PDMP prior to prescribing an opioid (Butler, Becker, & Humphreys, 2018; Manasco et al., 2016).
Emergency room visits. The rise in prescription opioid abuse and misuse has placed an amazing burden on the well being care infrastructure, accounting for about a half million visits to the ER and increasing direct well being care price to many well being insurers (Barth et al., 2017). Opioid-related visits are on the rise, particularly within the ER, throughout all demographic groups (Lin et al., 2017). Emergency departments have turn out to be a frequent avenue for individuals to get hold of prescription opioids and a high-risk setting for doctor shopping and drug diversion (Sun et al., 2018). According to Kim, Heard, Heard, and Hoppe (2016) roughly 31% of all ER patients have been discharged with an opioid prescription. The ER plays a significant function within the treatment of patients with opioid use and associated problems. The availability for ER suppliers to have entry and routinely use the PDMP may present clinicians the ability to prevent writing for overlapping opioid prescriptions (Geissert et al., 2018). Evidence through research findings does assist that a PDMP can change ER physicians’ prescribing plans in 41% of instances and resulted in less prescribing of controlled substance, similar to opioids (Griggs, Weiner, & Feldman, 2014).
A thorough evaluation of the numerous literature associated to prescription drug monitoring program was conducted. Several databases have been used to search for the peer-reviewed sources for this project assignment. The databases were:
- Citations and Abstracts for Literature of Nursing and Allied Health (CINHAL)
- EBSCO Host, © PubMed
Several search terms had been used to determine sources for this project. The search phrases included prescription drug monitoring system, opioid disaster, substance abuse, controlled drugs, and prescription drug abuse. Using the search phrases identified, 245 articles were obtained from the electronic search. A review of the title, summary, and article was performed, and 30 articles have been selected and used for this project assignment.
The prescription abuse of opioids has grown to epidemic proportion in the US, which has elevated roughly four-folds since 1999 (Pauly et al., 2017; Sun et al., 2018). The elevated use of opioids has demonstrated a correlation to the increased price of deaths because of prescription opioids overdose (Pauly et al., 2017). As a results of the opioid crisis, evidence counsel that there has been an increase within the variety of ER visits, remedy facilities, and opioid overdose (Ali, Dowd, Classen, Mutter, & Novak, 2017). Endorsed by varied authorities entities, such as the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention and the DHHS, the PDMP has been identified as crucial coverage initiative for decreasing prescription drug abuse (Ali et al., 2017; Irvine et al., 2014). The PDMP is designed to trace prescribing and allotting of prescription-controlled substances with the objective to scale back over-prescribing of opioids and to determine individuals with opioid prescriptions from multiple suppliers. In different phrases, the PDMP might help to facilitate data sharing amongst prescribers as a technique to avert diversion and prescribing to individuals who are vulnerable to opioid abuse and overdose.
The PDMP presents the chance to scale back the probability of patients to receive a number of prescriptions from a quantity of suppliers. The program can present health care providers and pharmacists a extra complete information about the risk of drug in search of habits by the affected person and inappropriate prescribing practices by providers. Numerous research concerning the impact of PDMPs concerning the prescribing practices of opioids by providers have shown that the implementation of PDMP was effective in lowering the number of prescriptions written for opioids and a discount in overdose dying and a number of prescribers (Ali et al., 2017). Bao et al. (2016) discovered that there was a correlation between the implementation of a PDMP and a discount in the prescribing of opioids, which includes substantial adjustments in opioid prescriber charges from before and after the usage of the PDMP system. Research data has demonstrated that opioid-related deaths have decreased in states with a PDMP than in states without a PDMP (Ali et al., 2017). For instance, Florida, Georgia, and Oregon has seen an association with a lower in opioid prescribing patterns (Ali et al., 2017; Deyo et al., 2018). Delcher et al. (2017) demonstrated that the creation of Florida’s PDMP was related to a 25% decrease in opioid-related deaths and a 29% decline in opioid diversion after implementing their program (Delcher et al., 2017).