Fluoride is excessively obtainable in floor water is quite common in India. To understanding the adverse effects of fluoride in water many adsorbents using time to time but due to many unwanted effects of defluoridation we need a perfect technique for this. In this analysis work we now have been utilized a comparative research of two different cheap adsorbent .The using adsorbents are Fly ash and marble powder. Here used fly ash, generated from Chula. And pieces of marble collected from construction space and crushed for use within the laboratory.
In this analysis work Ash, Marble powder is blended with fluoridated water. After the evaluation we discovered both of the adsorbents removes fluoride from drinking water but the results were discovered from fly ash is best than from marble powder.
KEYWORDS: Adsorption, Defluoridation, Fluoride, Fly Ash, Marble Powder PH.
Various Health Impacts of Fluoride:
Fluoride is a positively charged ion like calcium (Ca++). It is important for our bones and tooth but having highest quantity of calcium in the physique attracts the maximum quantity of fluoride.
It is deposited in type of Calcium Fluorapatite crystals in the physique. Excess of fluoride above 1.5 mg/L may trigger to serious manifestations, which are described under:-
- Dental fluorosis: Problems related teeths.
- Skeletal fluorosis: Problem associated bones of hands, legs and joints.
- Non – skeletal fluorosis: Excessive fluoride can cause several different problems and dysfunction like neurological, muscular, allergic, gastro-intestinal and urinary issues.
Common defluoridation strategies of drinking water:
Removal of excess fluoride from drinking water known as defluoridation.
The process of defluoridation can use by following methods:-
- The treatment of fluoride water at the supply and
- The therapy of fluoridated water at the family degree.
Developed international locations are utilizing supply treatment method (i). Defluoridation is a technical treatment methodology beneath the supervision of expert individuals right here cost is a limiting factor. But in the less developed international locations the same method is in all probability not feasible, particularly in rural areas, where settlements are scattered. Treatment on the level of use (ii) has a number of advantages over therapy at group degree. Treatment could only be potential at a decentralized level, for instance on the neighborhood, village or family stage. Costs are lower, as defluoridation may be restricted to the demand for cooking and ingesting – often less than 25% of the entire water demand. Chemical treatment of the complete water demand would lead to production of huge volumes of sludge, which requires a secure disposal.
It has been discovered that the defluoridation methods of consuming water usually are not adequate when preliminary focus of fluoride within the water is very excessive and the pH of the untreated water is alkaline. Moreover, totally different degrees of hardness of water require completely different concentrations of alum.
Various limitations are found when we use of level of use therapy method like reliability of the remedy units has to be assured, and that each one customers ought to be motivated to use solely the handled water for ingesting and cooking on the situation is untreated water can also be out there in the house
National Environment Engineering Research Institute in Nagpur, India (NEERI) has evolved a cheap and easy technique of defluoridation, which is known as the Nalgonda approach. UNICEF has labored closely with the Government and other partners in defluoridation programmes in India, where excessive fluoride has been known for many years to exist in groundwater. In the Nineteen Eighties, UNICEF supported the Government’s Technology Mission in the effort to establish and tackle the fluoride drawback: the Government subsequently launched a massive programme, still underneath way, to provide fluoride-safe water in all the areas affected. The Nalgonda method has been repeatedly confirmed to be a cheap and effective family defluoridation method. (Lela Iyenger, March 2005, UNICEF, New Delhi) In this system, fluoride is precipitated using 500 mg/L of alum and 30 mg/L of lime.
For removing of fluoride from ingesting water three mechanisms may be apply:
- Addition of chemicals or Chemical additive methods
- Addition of strong media or Contact precipitation
- Adsorption/ion change methods by assist of bought surfaces
Addition of chemical compounds or Chemical additive methods
These methods involve the addition of soluble chemical substances to the water. Fluoride is removed either by precipitation, co-precipitation, or adsorption onto the fashioned precipitate. Chemicals embody lime used alone or with magnesium or aluminum salts along with coagulant aids. Treatment with lime and magnesium makes the water unsuitable for drinking due to the excessive pH after therapy. The use of alum and a small amount of lime has been extensively studied for defluoridation of consuming water.
The technique popularly often recognized as the Nalgonda approach (RENDWM, 1993), is one of example named after the town in India where it was first used at water works level. It entails including lime (5% of alum), bleaching powder (optional) and alum (Al2(SO4)3.18H2O) in sequence to the water, adopted by coagulation, sedimentation and filtration (L.Iyenger,2005). A much bigger dose of alum is required for fluoride removing (150 mg/mg F-), in contrast with the doses used in routine water therapy. As hydrolysis of alum to aluminum hydroxide releases H+ ions, lime is added to take care of the impartial pH in the treated water. Excess lime is used to hasten sludge settling. The dose of alum and lime to be added in uncooked water with different fluoride concentrations and alkalinity ranges (G.Karthikeyan and A. Shunmuga Sundarraj, 1999).
The response occurs via the next equations:
2 Al2 (SO4)3.18H2O + NaF + 9Na2CO3 ? [5Al (OH) three Al (OH) 2F] + 9Na2SO4+NaHCO3 + 8 CO2 + 45 H2O
3 Al2 (SO4)3.18H2O + NaF +17NaHCO3 ? [5Al (OH) three Al (OH) 2F] + 9Na2SO4+ 17 CO2 + 18 H2O
The Nalgonda method has been successfully used at both individual and community levels in India and different creating nations like China and Tanzania. Domestic defluoridation units are designed for the treatment of forty liters of water. Whereas the fill-and-draw defluoridation plant can be used for small communities. Alum therapy is seldom used for defluoridation of ingesting water in developed international locations.
Contact precipitation is a way during which fluoride is faraway from water through the addition of calcium and phosphate compounds. The presence of a saturated bone charcoal medium acts as a catalyst for the precipitation of fluoride both as CaF2, and/or fluorapatite. Tests at neighborhood level in Tanzania have shown promising results of excessive effectivity. Reliability, good water high quality and low price are reported advantages of this technique (Chilton, et al., 1999).
In the adsorption technique, raw water is handed by way of a bed containing defluoridating materials. The material retains fluoride either by bodily, chemical or ion exchange mechanisms. The adsorbent gets saturated after a interval of operation and requires regeneration.
A big selection of materials has been tried for fluoride uptake. Bauxite, magnetite, kaolinite, serpentine, varied forms of clays and pink mud are some of the naturally occurring supplies studied. The basic mechanism of fluoride uptake by these materials is the exchange of metallic lattice hydroxyl or different anionic teams with fluoride.
Fluoride uptake capability could be increased by certain pre-treatments like acid washing, calcinations, and so on. None of the mentioned materials generally exhibits excessive fluoride uptake capacities.
Processed supplies like activated alumina, activated carbon, bone char, defluoron-2(sulphonated coal) used for defluoridation of drinking water .And synthetic supplies like ion exchange resins even have been extensively evaluated for defluoridation. Among these materials, bone char, activated alumina and calcined clays have been efficiently used within the field; (Cummins, 1985, Susannae Rajchagool and Chaiyan Rajchagool, 1997, and Priyanta and Padamasiri, 1996).
Materials and Methods and Experimental Design
Area of work: Sitapura Industrial area, Tehsil Sanganer, District Jaipur (Rajasthan).
Sitapura Industrial Area is situated 6.zero Km from Jaipur Air port alongside NH-12. This space is called EPIP (Export Promotion Industrial Park). Jaipur city is 18 km from EPIP. The area is round 365.00 acres. The water high quality is potable on this space. Water availability by tube wells. The Depth of tube wells are approximate 30m. Average discharge of water is 2,000 gallons per hour. The prominent industries of on this space are chemical and car industries. Thousands of residential flats can be found in and around space. ITI, Polytechnics, Engineering Institutes, Medical Institutes and Hospitals, Management, IT and Architectural colleges, Fashion Designing Institutes .buying complex and so forth. are located on this space.
Map of Sitapura Industrial area
Aim of labor: Due to proved health hazards, sophisticated procedure and expenditure, many well-liked defluoridation course of like – Nalgonda, Activated alumina etc. methods are within the phase out process subsequently the purpose of the current analysis work is to find out a best defluoridation methodology which is easy to make use of by illiterate villagers, requires minimal expenditure, involvement of much less technical private and efficient methods for fluoride removing from consuming water in order that these strategies may be apply simply in all places.
Importance of defluoridation: Due to numerous well being impacts of fluoride on human beings the remedy of fluoride is critical.
Methods Details of methods
- Method A Removal of fluoride by Fly Ash
- Method B Removal of fluoride by Marble powder
Defluoridation methods utilized in research work:
In view of the demerits of some defluoridation strategies, within the present analysis work we’ve tried to make use of some cheap, efficient and simply out there good adsorbent of fluoride for the purpose of defluoridation. These easy strategies can be applied simply underneath all circumstances.
Method A: Defluoridation by Fly Ash (based on adsorption process): -The fly ash is an effective adsorbent of fluoride .In this methodology we have used fly ash, generate from Chula. The one hundred gm ash was blended with 1 liter water having fluoride. Stir 5 to 10 minutes then keep it for settle a minimum of for 2 hr. After 2 hour this solution was filtered (G-3 crucible)
Method B: Defluoridation by Marble Powder (based on chemical therapy process): – In chemical treatment processes, lime treatment is one of them. In this technique, we collected marble stone and crushed into marble powder. Then it was used for removal of fluoride rather than lime.100 gm of marble powder was mixed with1 liter water having fluoride. Stir 5 to 10 minutes then hold it for settle at least for two hr. After 2 hour this answer was filtered (G-3 crucible)
Determination of Fluorides:
Important fluorides bearing mineral are fluoride apatite, amphiboles and micas. The focus in floor water is proscribed as a outcome of low solubility of most fluorides, but in some areas the concentration reaches above 5ppm.
For the dedication of fluoride we use ions electrode method.
A potential is established by the presence of fluoride ions throughout the crystal which is measured by an ion meter. The ions selective electrode is a fluoride delicate electrode of the strong state sort which consisting of a lanthanum fluoride crystal. It may be use in types of a cell in the mixture with a reference electrode, known as calomel electrode. The crystal contacts the sample solution at the one face and an inner reference answer on the other.
As per the WHO (World Health Organization), permissible limit of Fluoride in consuming water must be 1.5 mg/l.
Results and Conclusion:
To handle the fluoridation drawback in and round Sitapura Industrial Area, Jaipur 10 sample collection websites have been undertaken for the current examine. The research was carried out in three phases based on seasons and water utilization. Two strategies had been employed on the samples for defluoridation in each phase. Different physical and chemical parameters along with Nitrate, Fluoride and Heavy metals have been analyzed.
Physical and chemical analysis like PH, Hardness, Chloride, Total Dissolve Solid (TDS), and Alkalinity has been accomplished within the laboratory of JaganNath University, Chaksu whereas some parameters like Fluoride, Nitrate and Heavy metals were analyzed by Team Test Lab Sitapura, Jaipur.
In phase I, all samples had been collected after rainy season. During the evaluation of parameters we found that pattern No.6 which is collected from JNIT College has most fluoride focus (2.84mg/l) and minimal fluoride concentration found in sample No.3 which is collected from Ratan Textile (1.18mg/l). We also discovered the fluoride focus exceeds from the permissible limit in maximum samples collected from the examine areas.
When pattern No. 6 was defluoridized with fly ash, the focus of fluoride dropped from 2.84 to zero.88 mg/l. When we take away the fluoride by using fly ash methodology the concentration of fluoride goes down below the permissible limit. On utilizing marble powder the amount of fluoride decreased to 2.35 mg/l.
In II and III section, once more we found nearly same end result for all of the samples as in phase I.
We can see the variations of fluoride focus in all samples of all phases earlier than and after defluoridation strategies ( determine 2).
The variations in share (%) of Fluoride content by completely different defluoridation strategies in all samples are given in the Table 4. It has been noticed from the proportion (%) variations, that fly ash can remove fluoride from consuming water more successfully than marble.
The aim of our study was to find out the most effective suitable defluoridation methods which might be employed simply and effectively.
When samples were defluoridized with fly ash the focus of fluoride dropped drastically in all samples. But due to the chemical nature of fly ash other physico-chemical parameters showed a rise. All other parameters like TDS, Alkalinity, Hardness, Nitrate, and Chloride had been managed with out hindering the flexibility of fly ash to defluoridize the water. No further traces of heavy metals had been detected in the samples after remedy with handled fly ash.
Marble was found to be not a lot effectively in removing of fluoride comparative to fly ash.
I feel so joyful in relation to acknowledgements after the task is accomplished. I am very grateful to all of those that immediately or not directly helped me in this endeavor. I need to share my deep sense of gratitude to Mr. Deepak Gupta, Chairman, Jagannath University for offering favorable surroundings for research work and Sincere due to Vice Chancellor of Jagannath University for ethical help. I express my gratitude and due to good advice, support of my supervisor, Dr. Shikha Modi. She has been supported for analysis work. My Sincere thanks are to members of Team Test Laboratory for giving the outcomes of analysis timely.