The 1920’s and 1980’s are related in many ways. Their similarities are social, economical, and political. Some of the similarities between the decades are Prohibition and the War on Drugs, the Stock Market Crash of 1929 and 1987, and the affect of music on society.
Prohibition was handed because the 18th modification, that importing, exporting, transporting, and manufacturing of alcohol was to be put to an end. Prohibition didn’t obtain its objectives. Instead, it added to the issues that it intended to solve.
It was expected that the lower in alcohol consumption would in turn scale back crime, poverty, dying charges, enhance the economy, and the quality of life.
As a result of the lack of enforcement of the Prohibition Act and the creation of an illegal trade of bootlegging an increase in crime transpired. The Prohibitionists hoped that the Volstead Act would lower drunkenness in America and thereby lower the crime price, especially in massive cities. Although in the path of the beginning of Prohibition this purpose gave the impression to be fulfilled, the crime rate quickly skyrocketed to simply about twice that of the pre-prohibition interval.
In giant cities the murder went from 5.6 (per 100,000 population) in the pre-prohibition interval, to almost 10 (per 100,000 population) throughout prohibition, practically a 78 % increase.
Serious crimes, corresponding to homicides, assault, and battery, elevated almost thirteen percent, whereas different crimes involving victims increased 9 %. Many supporters of prohibition argued that the crime rate decreased. This is true if one is analyzing only minor crimes, corresponding to swearing, mischief, and vagrancy, which did in reality lower because of prohibition.
The major crimes, nevertheless, such as homicides, and burglaries, increased 24 percent between 1920 and 1921. In addition, the variety of federal convicts over the course of the prohibition period increased 561 % (Hanson 31-34).
After Prohibition was deemed a failure, the National Prohibition Act, or Volstead Act, was passed. The Volstead Act was put into place to determine specific legal guidelines and strategies of enforcement; the Federal Prohibition Bureau was formulated in order to see that the Volstead Act was enforced. Nevertheless, bootleggers and commoners alike flagrantly violated these laws. Bootleggers smuggled liquor from oversees and Canada, stole it from authorities warehouses, and produced their very own. Many individuals hid their liquor in hip flasks, false books, hollow canes, and anything else they might find (Hanson 29).
Although one would think that prohibition would enhance the issue of acquiring alcohol, liquor was really very straightforward to amass. The bootlegging enterprise was so immense that prospects may easily obtain alcohol by merely strolling down almost any avenue. Replacing saloons, which have been all shut down initially of prohibition, have been illegal speak-easies. These companies, hidden in basements, office buildings, and anywhere that might be discovered, admitted solely those with membership cards, and had the most trendy alarm methods to keep away from being shut down (Hanson 28).
In the beginning of the 1980’s medicine start to unfold rapidly via inner cities due to the simple accessibility. In 1982 the National Survey on Drug Abuse discovered 22 million Americans had used cocaine one time of their life. It grew to become the selection of drug for the famous and successful; skilled athletes, celebrities in leisure, legal professionals, college professors, and Wall Street brokers. It turned labeled as the “champagne of drugs”. Many individuals took to the popular type of cocaine known as crack, which could probably be disguised as smoking a cigarette although it was incredibly addicting. People might also purchase crack cocaine easily and inexpensively. Dealers would disguise regular properties and apartments as “crack houses” the place a consumer could easily get hold of their repair.
In the 1980’s Reagan had a similar drawback with the war on medication. Inner metropolis violence elevated because of gangs combating for territory. It was additionally an underlying trigger within the rise of domestic violence, baby abuse, homelessness, violence in school, and dropout charges. In 1986 Anti-Drug Abuse Act was handed in effort to stop the drug crisis. The Act was aimed towards accountability and zero-tolerance in direction of addicts.. Critics accused the government of spending an extreme amount of on enforcing rather than educating and therapy. Its effects have been much like those of Prohibition so in 1988 the act was redone (Bondi 395).
It was nearly inconceivable for presidency agencies to cease the smuggling of medication into the us It was done most commonly by boat however dealers would often discover new ways to get their contraband previous drug sniffing canine and the border patrol at the Mexico border. When Reagan’s time period ended and George W. Bush took workplace he gave his inaugural speech by which he stated, “When the primary cocaine was smuggled in on a ship, it might as properly have been a deadly micro organism, so much has it harm the body, the soul of our nation. There is way to be carried out and much to be stated, however take my word for it: This scourge will stop. (Bondi 396)”.
By the tip of the 1920’s the Stock Market was flourishing. In 1928 the New York Stock Exchange was trading at about six to seven million shares a day. Many economists warned in regards to the risks of rising costs. People disregarded this information and speculation elevated concerning the Stock Market being the straightforward way to make money. People invested their life’s savings. Banks too invested massive sums of money into the Stock Market.
On Thursday, October 24, 1929, the underside began to fall out. Prices dropped precipitously as increasingly traders tried to promote their holdings. By the end of the day, the New York Stock Exchange had misplaced 4 billion dollars, and it took change clerks until five o’clock AM the following day to clear all the transactions. By the following Monday, the belief of what had occurred began to sink in, and a full-blown panic ensued. Thousands of investors, lots of them ordinary working individuals, not critical “players” had been financially ruined. By the end of the year, inventory values had dropped by fifteen billion dollars (Hanson 67).
Although the crash of 1929 was devastating on the financial system, the crash on October 19, 1987,’Black Monday’, was more devastating be cause the Dow Jones Industrial Average plunged 508.32 points, shedding 22.6% of its total worth. The fall far surpassed the one-day lack of 12.9% that began the good stock market crash of 1929. The Dow’s 1987 fall also triggered panic promoting and similar drops in inventory markets worldwide. “What made this market break extraordinary was the velocity with which costs fell, the unprecedented volume of buying and selling and the consequent threat to the monetary system.”
Both crashes were important because they took a devastating toll on the economic system. This led to the loss of jobs and shutting down of companies. Although a lot had been done after the crash of 1929, corresponding to making Paper Companies unlawful, it could not stop the devastating losses of 1987 (Bondi 301).
In the early 1920’s occasions had been prosperous and other people start to look for a new type of entertainment. It was the commercial daybreak of radio, and the continued recognition of the phonograph. Neither invention was new. Radio had been experimented with as early as 1896, and Marconi stations lined the coasts before the Great War. The 20s noticed the demise of the wax cylinder recorder (Edison manufactured them into the 20s), and the rise of the disk that was to keep with us in some type until the CD.
Music turned broadly available for the common particular person because of the provision of phonographs and the accessibility to the radio. Things just like the Charleston and dance marathons grew to become popular do to the music that could presumably be performed at any given time. Jazz and blues also grew to become big because of musicians like Louis Armstrong, Billie Holiday, Sam Morgan, and Oscar “Popa” Celestin (Hanson 25)..
On October 1, 1982 Sony launched the CDP-101, the primary Compact Disc audio CD participant. This new technological advance sparked the event of a new type of music often identified as New Wave. Like Jazz, it started to realize recognition in New York City. The music became more and more well-liked and commenced the attraction of individuals to nightclubs, such as CGBG’s (Bondi 135).
Despite the variations in expertise and requirements, the 1920’s and 1980’s had been very similar. When it comes right down to it, historical past actually does repeat itself in some ways. Historians can only inform us as to what we will expect of the future and what we will do to forestall such devastating events.
- Bondi, Victor. American Decades 1980 – 1989. Washington D.C. : Amanly, Inc. Book 1996
- Hanson, Erica. Through the Decades The 1920’s. San Diego: Lucent Books, Inc. 1999